Road bitumens according to European Standard PN-EN 12591:2010
Road bitumens are the most popular binders for asphalt mixes used throughout the world. Penetration at a temperature of 25ºC is the classification base for road bitumens in Poland and other European countries. In countries applying the EN 12591 standard, bitumens are classified into separate types based on penetration.
A history of the development of reference documents for road bitumens in Poland
The first reference document for the manufacture of road bitumens in Poland was Polish Standard PN/C-96170:1951 with updates to this standard in 1956, 1963 and 1965. In 2002, the Polish Committee for Standardization (PKN) published European Standard No PN-EN 12591:2002(U). In comparison to the old Polish Standard PN/C-96170:1965, European Standard PN-EN 12591:2002(U) changed the scope and methods for testing the properties of road bitumen. Apart from the required basic properties, three additional parameters are required in Poland: the Fraass breaking point, an increase in the softening point after RTFOT and paraffin content. Furthermore, this European Standard introduced new kinds of road bitumen compared to the bitumens from the earlier Polish Standard of 1965, i.e. a change in the labelling of road bitumens from D50 to 50/70 etc. Apart from penetration ranges at 25ºC, the softening point ranges for the new road bitumens were also changed. European Standard PN-EN 12591:2002(U) was replaced with PN-EN 12591:2004. In May, 2009, the Polish Committee for Standardization introduced PN-EN 12591:2009, which since December, 2009, has had the status of a harmonizing standard authorizing manufacturers to use CE labelling for the road bitumens manufactured by them. In September, 2010, the Polish Committee for Standardization approved and published PN-EN 12591:2010, which has replaced PN-EN 12591:2009.
Road bitumens from ORLEN Asfalt in the light of the reference documents
The production of road bitumens in Plock began in 1965 and has continued to the present day based on the applicable standards of the time. Since 11/2010, ORLEN Asfalt has manufactured road bitumens in accordance with PN-EN 12591:2010, while applying CE labelling.
ORLEN Asfalt manufactures six types of road bitumens:
• Road bitumen 20/30
• Road bitumen 35/50
• Road bitumen 50/70
• Road bitumen 70/100
• Road bitumen 100/150
• Road bitumen 160/220
PMO modified road bitumen according to European Standard PN-EN 14023:2011
ORBITON polymer modified bitumens are special road binders made from a base of bitumen with the addition of polymers, e.g. Styren-Butadien-Styren (SBS) elastomer. The addition of the thermoelastic elastomer SBS significantly changes the properties of a road bitumen and asphalt mixture. The resistance of the asphalt surface to low temperature, rutting, fatigue cracking, and water and frost resistance increases. As a result, the service life of the asphalt surface is prolonged. The manufacture of ORBITON polymer modified bitumens is carried out using a special installation for the modification of bituminous binders with polymer. This production technology was developed by ORLEN Asfalt.
The history of the development of reference documents for the production of polymer modified road bitumens in Poland
The beginnings in the use of polymer modified bitumens in Poland stretch back to the 1990s. During this period there were neither Polish nor European standards regulating these products. In Poland, the Technical Approvals from the Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) issued for each group of products from a manufacturer served as the reference documents. The properties and division of polymer modified binders in the Technical Approvals were based on the Temporary Technical Guidelines for Polymer Bitumen TWT-PAD-97, and subsequently on a further version referred to as TWT-PAD-2003. In January, 2006, the Polish Committee for Standardization published European Standard PN-EN 14023:2006 and in March, 2009, PN-EN 14023:2009. In March, 2010, amendment Ap1:2010 appeared in the list of Polish standards, which amended the national annexe NA i.e. it increased the requirements with respect to cohesion in force ductility in low speed traction and increased the requirements with respect to elastic recovery for the asphalt binder 65/105-60 before and after RTFOT. In September, 2010, the Polish Committee for Standardization approved, and in October published, PN-EN 14023:2010, which replaced PN-EN 14023:2009/Ap1:2010. In January, 2011, the Polish Committee for Standardization approved and published PN-EN 14023:2011, which replaced PN-EN 14023:2010. In May, 2014, amendment Ap1:2014 appeared in the list of Polish Standards, which amended national annex NA to PN-EN 14023:2011. This Amendment replaced table NA.1, containing the requirements for polymer modified bitumens for their use in Poland, with two new tables: NA.1 and NA.2. The first of these – NA.1, as in the earlier version, contained the requirements for polymer modified bitumens, and the second – NA.2, contained the newly introduced requirements for highly-modified polymer bitumens for use in Poland. Apart from introducing a change in the form of adding requirements for highly-modified polymer bitumens, adjustments were also introduced for certain requirements contained in table NA.1 of PN-EN 14023:2011. The most important of these are an increase in the requirements with respect to cohesion in force ductility in low speed traction for asphalt 45/80-65 and raising the requirements with respect to elastic recovery for the asphalt binders 10/40-65, 25/55-60, 45/80-55 and 45/80-65. The requirements for the Fraass breaking point were also raised for asphalt 45/80-55 from -12°C to -15°C.
Polymer modified bitumens from ORLEN Asfalt in the light of the reference documents
The conclusion of 2008 saw the end of production for ORBITON polymer modified bitumens in accordance with the Technical Approval from the Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) No. AT/2005-03-0864, together with Amendment No. 1/2007 to AT/2005-03-0864, and the commencement in production of two polymer modified bitumens: ORBITON 45/80-50 and 45/80-60 in accordance with PN-EN 14023:2006. In March, 2009, production of five ORBITON polymer modified binders began in accordance with PN-EN 14023:2009. Four of these are equivalents of polymer modified bitumens produced earlier in accordance with the Technical Approval from the Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) , while the fifth is a new polymer modified bitumen.
In the years 2012-2013, the differences in the national requirements of EU states and the company’s distribution plans for polymer modified bitumen outside Poland gave rise to the need to introduce EXP polymer modified bitumens into the product range. These are bitumens meeting the requirements of the EU countries targeted for export.
Since the publication of amendment Ap1:2014 to PN-EN 14023:2011, the ORLEN Asfalt product range has included three new products –ORBITON HiMA highly-modified polymer bitumens 25/55-80, 45/80-80 and 65/105-80.
As of June, 2014, ORLEN Asfalt manufactures 11 types of polymer modified bitumens under the common brand name of ORBITON:
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 10/40-65,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 25/55-55 EXP/DE – bitumen intended for the German market,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 25/55-60,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 25/55-60 EXP/CZ – bitumen intended for the Czech market,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 25/55-65 EXP – bitumen intended for the Balkan countries,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 25/55-80 HiMA – a new highly-modified polymer bitumen,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 45/80-55,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 45/80-65,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 45/80-80 HiMA - a new highly-modified polymer bitumen,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 65/105-60,
• Polymer modified bitumen ORBITON 65/105-80 – a new highly-modified polymer bitumen.
Since June, 2014, ORBITON polymer modified bitumens (without the EXP marking) and ORBITON HiMA have been manufactured according to the national standards of the target export countries.
Multigrade road bitumens after IBDiM Technical Approvals
Multigrade road bitumens are products fitting between road bitumens and polymer modified bitumens. Since the 1980s they have been successfully used in many countries around the world, in different climatic zones and different load conditions. BITREX multigrade road bitumens belong to a group of special bitumens. They do not contain additives or modifiers, e.g. polymers or PPA. Their production technology was developed by ORLEN Asfalt.
A history of the reference documents for the production of multigrade road bitumens in Poland
At present multigrade bitumens are not covered by any Polish or European standard. They are also not included in the standard relating to normal road bitumens, PN-EN 12591, nor in PN-EN 14023 relating to polymer modified bitumens. For this reason, the only reference document authorising a manufacturer to market its products is a Technical Approval from the Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) for these products.
ORLEN Asfalt multigrade road bitumens in the light of the reference documents
The company manufactures three types of multigrade road bitumens under the common brand name of BITREX based on Technical Approvals from the Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM):
• Multigrade road bitumen BITREX 20/30,
• Multigrade road bitumen BITREX 35/50,
• Multigrade road bitumen BITREX 50/70.
Requirements for the multigrade road bitumens BITREX 20/30 according to the Technical Approval IBDiM No. AT/2010-02-1940
The IBDiM Technical Approval No. AT/2005-03-1882/2 is a reference document determining all required properties of BITREX 35/50 multigrade road bitumen.
The IBDiM Technical Approval No. AT/2005-03-1882/2 is a reference document determining all required properties of BITREX 50/70 multigrade road bitumen.